Pt 5. Transitions around 1800-1850.
Reindeer herding is prosperous throughout most of the time. The winter transhumance for pasturage to the Bothnic coast becomes more and more frequent, till it as its first 1800s-peak around 1815-1820; earlier here than in more northern areas. Many herds are grazing around Sundsvall and Hudiksvall areas. But also around High coast, Härnösand, Söderhamn.
The old Forest Saamis smaller herds grow analogically: the sedentarization (a process which ends up with no more nomadism, less if any movements outside one parish). Simultaneously, the small-scale reindeer ownership is growing in the (close to exactly) whole of present counties Västernorrland and Gävleborg. Parish Nora has at least a dozen such small-scale reindeer owners around 1815. The state doesnt put any new repressive laws upon the Forest Saamis during these years (not that we know of); but – and this is an important ”but” – the pressure is now held upon them from the farming society, from the local society.
The Forest Saamis becomes Parish Saamis with less and less possibilities to migrate or nomadize.
If we write in 1825-30, some areas will still see some fairly prosperous reindeer-owing parish Saamis, whereas the majority gradually turns poorer and poorer, and most of them all suffer disasterous levels of mortality in general and infant mortality in particular. At times roughly every new-born child dies. Tuberculosis appears to be the worst reaper.
This is within the group of parish Saamis.
This group lived, by 1815, in at least eight more landscapes or shires, than they do today.
We could as well call this a low-intensive holocaust. The Forest Saamis vanishes as a group. Their language is extinct along the 1800s, we do not know exactly when.
Still, as late as 1845-50 there are hinterlands for the Saamis of Bollnäs, Ockelbo, Alfta, Ovanåker and Voxna, i.e around the vast lake of Amungen. Some labouring Saamis, not so few. do still move around in mid-1800s.
Not every parish possess a parish Saami; says the Governor report of 1790. The westernmost parishes of Hälsingland and beyond does not really realize the need for their duties, since many if them they do slaughter their own horses.
The infant mortality, though, still keeps a-rising. Figures around 90% is not unusual. From 1790 and on we see a flow of Saamis from Jämtland, both sons of Mountain Saamis and sons and daughters of parish Saamis. These people becomes parish Saamis, generally in parishes around Dellen Lakes.
The parish Saami caste is, without any doubt, less and less well seen in late 1800s. This is a complex story; and what we need to know, is that the Forest Saami era by 1870-1880, with a few individual exceptions, is over. There will be people living like the old parish Saamis even in the 1850s; yet this is extremely rare.
A huge group, once distributed all the way to Lake Vänern, Vättern/Hjälmaren and Lake Mälaren is gone.
Next part about Mountain Saamis more specifically.
PICTURE: Mårten Jonsson Häll (b.1840) and wife Sofia Larsson, photo from ca 1910.
One of the last parish Saami couples in Sweden. Southernmost Jämtland
(they also moved a lot around Ytterhogdal in Härjedalen and Kårböle, present County Gävleborg).
BETTER RESOLUTION: http://bildarkivet.jamtli.com/bild.aspx?bildnr=JLM.88X324:16