”How the North was won” – Ryska och fennoskandiska aggressionerna på urfolksområden ca 800-1800. Del 1. Jugra, ob-ugrerna och om forna tiders lärda (i syd) och deras uppfattning om Ultima Thule

Den berbiske och andalusiske vetenskapesmannen och föreläsaren Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī (1256-1344) * skrev följande om Yura eller Jugra:

”But beyond Wisu by the Sea of Darkness there lies a land known by the name of Yura. In summers the days are very long there, so that the Sun does not set for forty days, as the merchants say; but in winters the nights are equally long. The merchants report that Darkness is not far (from them), and that the people of Yura go there and enter it with torches, and find a huge tree there which is like a big village. But on top of the tree there sits a large creature, they say it is a bird. And they bring merchandise along, and each merchant sets down his goods apart from those of the others; and he makes a mark on them and leaves, but when he comes back, he finds commodities there, necessary for his own country…” (Al Garnati:32)

Hur kan man då definiera Jugra? 
Om vi konsulterar wikipedia, står där sålunda:

the name of the lands between the Pechora River and Northern Urals in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th centuries, as well as the name of the Khanty and partly Mansi tribes inhabiting these territories, later known as Voguls.

The Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug of Russia is also called Yugra.

KARTOR:  OVAN Mercator 1595, detalj. Man ser platsen för den första ryska befästningen Pustozersk (anlagd 1499) nära Pechoras mynning; anfallen av ett eller flera uralisktalande folk flera gånger 1644-1746.

NEDAN:  Herberstein 1549. Bildtext från Wikimedia Commons:
Yugra (Iuhra), ”the place of origin of Hungarians” (inde ungaroru origo) on Sigismund von Herberstein‘s 1549 map of Moscovia. Herberstein placed the label Iuhra east of the Ob River, while a statue of Aurea anus (Latin”Golden Old Woman”), a.k.a. Slata baba (”Golden Idol”) can be seen west of the Ob.

Detalj MercatorHerberstein-Moscovia-NE JUGRA

Man skulle alltså kunna säga att det handlar om den dåförtiden (för ryssar) kända världen i nord och öst – tills dess horisont nämligen Ryska norden öster om Vita havet och bort till och med mongolernas område. Khazanernas Khanat torde länge ha undanhållit ryska och europeiska intressenter från att utforska landen längre bort.

Och språkhistoriskt/: vilka är ob-ugrerna?
och – faktiskt – ungrarna (eller kanske hellre proto-ungrarna)

Film textad på ungerska (men fantastiska bilder)

* Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī, patronymikon:
ibn Yūsuf bin ‘Alī ibn Yūsuf ibn Hayyān an-Nifzī al-Barbarī
بن يوسف بن علي بن يوسف بن حيان
Fullständiga namnet:
full name Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf bin ‘Alī ibn Yūsuf ibn Hayyān an-Nifzī al-Barbarī Athīr al-Dīn Abū Ḥayyān al-Jayyānī al-Gharnāṭī al-Andalūsī.

Kallades: Abū Ḥayyān from Granada, dvs al-Gharnāṭī.



On how the wolves got established in Western Jämtland after they ate 3 000 human corpses, the dead bodies after the fallen Karoliner soldiers.
In English later this summer!

3 000 man frös ihjäl på fjället 1718-19.

Vilka kalasade på dom?

Schnitler (Major Peter Schnitlers grenseeksaminasjonsprotokoller 1742-1745. Bind 1: s 144f) menar att det är redan här problemen med varg i denna region börjar.

K XII 1706 av von Krafft
Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karl_XII_1706.jpg

Update Oct, 23: Some Die Young. Democracy under attack.

A Sad Day, Indeed.

After the act of racist terrorism in Trollhättan, I have no inspiration for writing blog articles.
Our free, democratic society is under attack.
I hope the elected leaders will show they can led in these moments.
Last I read is that several schools in the same region has received threats.

And moreover; I have a couple of commitments, deadlines to follow.

I will intend to write much more during the following weeks.

And stay tuned for news thru radio (Sameradion and perhaps one or two other channels/shows) and go listen if you are
in Stockholm Oct 28 or in Delsbo Nov 11!

Good Reindeer-luck!

Non-Saami Issue: Nevertheless interesting and actual stuff: Migration authorities losing it? (text to be translated)


For once I bring up a present-day subject.
It deals Sweden and a regional collapse concerning the reception of war refugees from Syria. Especially we see this in Smalandia/Småland.

Alas this will be in Swedish: hope I get the time to translate it along the weekend.

From my friend Anett’s blog:

Kanske borde dela utdrag ur min konversation med migrationsverket i Jönköping från i eftermiddag. Jag efterfrågade ett långtgående samarbete. Fick då det märkliga svaret att det inte går att dela ut kläder bland flyktingar för att dom ”börjar bråka om det” och ”det händer hela tiden” och ”en gång var det någon som drog kniv t.o.m. och så kan vi inte ha det.” På frågan om vart denna knivdragning skett eller om vi kan få tillgång till polisrapporten då vi utgår ifrån att är det ett knivslagsmål då tillkallas polis, fick jag ”vi vet inte riktigt vart det var men vi har hört talas om det.” ”det är mycket bättre att dom betalar för kläderna då bråkar dom inte.” Och detta inköp ska ske flera km från boendet på second hand butiken även godsherren i inslaget hänvisar till och med dom 61 kr dom får per dag? Och hur ska dom ta sig till affären? Ordnar ni bussar? ”dom kan få extra pengar till skor om dom behöver det” hur får dom den informationen? ”det får dom på informationsmötet” var håller ni mötet? på boendet? ”nä runtom i Jönköping” Hur tar dom sig till dessa möten? ”dit måste dom ta sig själva” varför håller ni inte mötet på boendet? ”det kan jag inte svara på”

Weekend reading: Evidence of Viking Outpost Found in Canada (Heather Pringle, National Geographic News) 2012

Over to the non-Saami (or at least not necessary Saami) study field…..

Evidence of Viking Outpost Found in Canada

Sharpeners may be smoking guns in quest for New World’s second Viking site.

Archaeologists dig in the Tanfield Valley.

Part of our weekly ”In Focus” series—stepping back, looking closer.
For the past 50 years—since the discovery of a thousand-year-old Viking way station in Newfoundland—archaeologists and amateur historians have combed North America’s east coast searching for traces of Viking visitors.

It has been a long, fruitless quest, littered with bizarre claims and embarrassing failures. But at a conference in Canada earlier this month, archaeologist Patricia Sutherland announced new evidence that points strongly to the discovery of the second Viking outpost ever discovered in the Americas.

(Read the new National Geographic magazine feature ”Vikings and Native Americans: Face-to-Face.”)

While digging in the ruins of a centuries-old building on Baffin Island (map), far above the Arctic Circle, a team led by Sutherland, adjunct professor of archaeology at Memorial University in Newfoundland and a research fellow at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland, found some very intriguing whetstones. Wear grooves in the blade-sharpening tools bear traces of copper alloys such as bronze—materials known to have been made by Viking metalsmiths but unknown among the Arctic’s native inhabitants.

Taken together with her earlier discoveries, Sutherland’s new findings further strengthen the case for a Viking camp on Baffin Island. ”While her evidence was compelling before, I find it convincing now,” said James Tuck, professor emeritus of archaeology, also at Memorial University.

Archaeologists dig in the Tanfield Valley.
Archaeologists have long known that Viking seafarers set sail for the New World around A.D. 1000. A popular Icelandic saga tells of the exploits of Leif Eriksson, a Viking chieftain from Greenland who sailed westward to seek his fortune. According to the saga, Eriksson stopped long enough on Baffin Island to walk the coast—named Helluland, an Old Norse word meaning ”stone-slab land”—before heading south to a place he called Vinland.

In the 1960s two Norwegian researchers, Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine Ingstad, discovered and excavated the Viking base camp at L’Anse aux Meadows (map) on the northern tip of Newfoundland—the first confirmed Viking outpost in the Americas. Dated to between 989 and 1020, the camp boasted three Viking halls, as well as an assortment of huts for weaving, ironworking, and ship repair.

(Related: ”American Indian Sailed to Europe With Vikings?”)

Viking Yarn

As reported in the November issue of National Geographic magazine, Sutherland first caught wind of another possible Viking way station in 1999, when she spotted two unusual pieces of cord that had been excavated from a Baffin Island site by an earlier archaeologist and stored at the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Gatineau, Quebec.

Sutherland noticed that the strands bore little resemblance to the animal sinew Arctic hunters twisted into cordage. The cords turned out to be expertly woven Viking yarn, identical in technique to yarn produced by Viking women living in Greenland in the 14th century.

The discovery prompted Sutherland to scour other museum collections for more Viking artifacts from Baffin Island and other sites. She found more pieces of Viking yarn and a small trove of previously overlooked Viking gear, from wooden tally sticks for recording trade transactions to dozens of Viking whetstones. (Also see ”Viking Weapon Recycling Site Found in England.”)

The artifacts came from four sites, ranging from northern Baffin Island to northern Labrador, a distance of a thousand miles (1,600 kilometers). Indigenous Arctic hunters known as the Dorset people had camped at each of the sites, raising the possibility that they had made friendly contact with the Vikings.

Intrigued, Sutherland decided to reopen excavations at the most promising site, a place known as Tanfield Valley on the southeast coast of Baffin Island. In the 1960s U.S. archaeologist Moreau Maxwell had excavated parts of a stone-and-sod building there, describing it as ”very difficult to interpret.” Sutherland suspected that Viking seafarers had built the structure.

Clues Etched in Bronze, Brass, and Iron

Since 2001 Sutherland’s team has been exploring Tanfield Valley and carefully excavating surviving parts of the mysterious ruins. They have discovered a wide range of evidence pointing to the presence of Viking seafarers: pelt fragments from Old World rats; a whalebone shovel similar to those used by Viking settlers in Greenland to cut sod; large stones that appear to have been cut and shaped by someone familiar with European stone masonry; and more Viking yarn and whetstones. And the stone ruins bear a striking resemblance to some Viking buildings in Greenland.

Still, some Arctic researchers remained skeptical. Most of the radiocarbon dates obtained by earlier archaeologists had suggested that Tanfield Valley was inhabited long before Vikings arrived in the New World. But as Sutherland points out, the complex site shows evidence of several occupations, and one of the radiocarbon dates indicates that the valley was occupied in the 14th century, when Viking settlers were farming along the coast of nearby Greenland.
In search of other clues to help solve the mystery, Sutherland turned to the Geological Survey of Canada. Using a technique known as energy dispersive spectroscopy, the team examined the wear grooves on more than 20 whetstones from Tanfield Valley and other sites. Sutherland and her colleagues detected microscopic streaks of bronze, brass, and smelted iron—clear evidence of European metallurgy, which she presented October 7 at a meeting of the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology in St. John’s, Canada.

(Related: ”Vikings’ Barbaric Bad Rap Beginning to Fade.”)

Norse-Native American Trade Network?

Sutherland speculates that parties of Viking seafarers travelled to the Canadian Arctic to search for valuable resources. In northern Europe at the time, medieval nobles prized walrus ivory, soft Arctic furs, and other northern luxuries—and Dorset hunters and trappers could readily stockpile such products. Helluland’s waters teemed with walruses, and its coasts abounded in Arctic foxes and other small fur-bearing animals. To barter for such goods, Viking traders likely offered bits of iron and pieces of wood that could be carved into figurines and other goods, Sutherland says.

If Sutherland is correct, the lines of evidence she has uncovered may point to a previously unknown chapter in New World history in which Viking seafarers and Native American hunters were partners together in a transatlantic trade network. ”I think things were a lot more complex in this part of the world than most people assumed,” Sutherland said. James Tuck agreed. ”It’s pretty convincing that there was a much larger Norse presence in the Canadian Arctic than any of us thought.”